The Black Sea, which is a distant relative of the Mediterranean, became the subject of the legend of Noah’s Flood with the waters of the Bosphorus. This huge pond; It has a coastline of 8 thousand 350 kilometers. The total area of the Black Sea is 461,000 km² and the deepest point of the Black Sea is 2,210 m. On the coast of 8,350 kilometers, there are 6 coastlines. Although it has its own species, such as anchovies, the number of life in the Black Sea is very limited.
Black Sea Countries
Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides and also a linking Asia and countries of the European continent. Turkey forms the border with the Black Sea in the north. While a large part of Turkey in Asia, 3% of the country’s land area is located in Europe. The country has a total area of 780,000 square miles. The northern part of the country, which forms a border with the Black Sea, is quite mountainous. The Black Sea coast of Turkey is a summer tourism resort with a variety of holiday resorts on the coast. The main port in the Black Sea is Istanbul. Trabzon and Samsun are important ports along the coast. In the country that has both Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, Mediterranean coasts are more popular than the Black Sea.
Bulgaria is a European country with a coast in the Black Sea. The country forms the border with the Black Sea. Bulgaria is also one of the most northwestern countries of the Black Sea. Varna and Burgas are one of the holiday and tourist resorts of the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, and many ports are located in the country. The major cities on the coastline are Burgas in the south and Varna in the north.
Romania is a European country that forms the border with the Black Sea in the east. Constanta port in Romania is the largest port of the Black Sea.
Ukraine is a country located in the east of Europe and bordering the Black Sea to the north. The largest port of the country in the Black Sea is in Sevastopol and Odessa. In the Black Sea, there are Ukrainian islands, including Dzharylgach Island and Zmiinyi Island. In Ukraine, the capital cities such as Kiev and Lviv are located in the inner regions, but there are many cities that use the sea well, especially in Odessa. Yalta, Sevastopol, Kerch are just a few of them.
Russia limits the Black Sea to the Northeast. Russia, the largest country in the region, had a short coastline in the Black Sea. An important port city like Sochi is one of the most popular cities in the region. Not only as a sea region, but also with winter tourism and the winter Olympic games previously hosted in Sochi Black Sea. The coastal region has a subtropical and Mediterranean climate and the climate is under the effect of the Caucasus Mountains.
Georgia is located in the Caucasus region and forms a border from the Black Sea to the southeast. The city of Batumi, located on the Black Sea coast and famous for being a gambling venue, is an important tourism center in the summer months. It earns very nice money from the Black Sea. In addition, the port cities such as Chakvi and Gagra are on the Black Sea coast.
Characteristics of Black Sea
The Black Sea had a long period of formation until it took its present form. In the geological periods, the Black Sea has become smaller and has taken its present form with the long developmental stages of the west, the Central Europe, the Caspian Sea and the basin extending up to the Aral lake. The Black Sea is less salty. The reason for this is that the nutrition is too high, the evaporation is low. Rainfall on the sea surface and streams pouring into the Black Sea provide plenty of fresh water. The salinity of the waters in the deep waters is different. The salinity of surface waters also varies from place to place.
The temperature of the Black Sea waters is related to the climate zone in which it is located. Located in the mid-climate zone, the sea is influenced by the Mediterranean climate in summer and the eastern continental climate of the winter. In summer, the highest temperature of surface waters is in July-August (20 ° – 26 ° C). The temperature in southeastern coasts is higher in August than in other parts. The temperature of the surface water in winter decreases from south to north.
The seawater in contact with air contains the gases in the air as molten. The amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and nitrogen increases from surface to bottom in the Black Sea. Oxygen is present only in surface waters. The amount of oxygen decreases after 70-120 m and it disappears completely under 180m in openings. The reason for the disappearance of oxygen after a certain depth in the Black Sea is that there is no water movement in the vertical direction. Water with different salinity and density prevent this movement. After the depth of oxygen, the living ends and sulfur hydrogen starts.
Stream of Black Sea
There is a current system in the Black Sea that concerns surface waters. This system consists of a stream flowing along the coast, and therefore two separate streams that influence the middle sections. A part of the waters which are directed from the northwest and west of the Black Sea, enters the Bosphorus and creates an overflow leading to the Marmara Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. A section also leads to the east and eastward along the Anatolian coast.
This stream is fed by rivers poured from Anatolia to the Black Sea; rivers act on the velocity of the stream. After the Hopa, the flow towards the north feeds on the mountains of the Caucasus and goes to the northwest. The upper flow coming from the Azov sea also interferes with this. The current following the coasts of the Crimean peninsula is divided into two; a portion of the water extends westward to the strait of Istanbul, the other arm, heading south towards the Anatolian coastal flows into the following.