Chad / Maps, Geography, Facts

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Chad is a landlocked land country located in Central Africa. Libya lies to the north, Niger to the west, Nigeria and Cameroon to the south, the Central African Republic to the south and Sudan to the east. Most of the country is covered by the Sahara Desert.

Where is Chad?


The center includes large dry plains, deserts in the north, mountains in the northwest and flats in the south. Petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad) are the main natural resources. In the north, hot, dry, dusty winds are emerging. Periodic droughts and grasshopper invasions are other disasters. Today, the discovery of underground water resources in Africa, especially in Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, and Chad, has been explored.


Today, Chad is governed by the transitional constitution, which entered into force on 6 April 1993. The Constitution defines the regime in the country as a republican regime. However, the events that occurred in 1993 showed that the current administration avoided giving many opportunities. There is a 57-member legislature in the country. The parliament, which consists of the governors and deputy governors of 14 provinces that make up the country, occasionally advises the administration. The head of state is the head of state and the head of the government is the prime minister. Tribal heads and regional leaders have an impressive role in local governments. It is a member of international organizations such as UN, OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference), African Union, African Antilles, and Pacific Convention, IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the Islamic Development Bank.


A tropical climate is seen in the south and the desert climate is dominated by the presence of the Sahara Desert in the north. In the north, hot, dry, dusty winds occur. Because there are tropical forests with frequent trees in the south, these regions get plenty of rain. Grasslands and arable lands are more in this part. The northern part consists mostly of deserts and mountainous areas. Chad, which has a climate varying according to the regions, has an average annual temperature of 25 degrees in Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, near the lake. The average annual rainfall is 648 mm. In the city of Mundu, near the Cameroon borders, the average annual temperature is 23 degrees, and the average annual precipitation is 1228 mm. It continues from June to September.


There is no official religion of the state. However, more than 60% of the population is Muslim. 22% of those who believe in traditional natural religions. The remaining 18% are Christians. Muslims mostly live in the northern and central parts of the country, those who believe in traditional religions, or animists in the southern parts. The majority of the Muslims are the Sunni Malik. The majority of Christians are Catholic, and a few are Protestants. Most of the Chad Christians were the Christians in the colonial period and in the following years. In addition, a small number of people from Europe came to settle in this country.

Industry and Tourism

Because of its geographical structure, lack of infrastructure, political conflicts, transportation problems and being completely surrounded by land, the country’s economy is very poor. The country in which hunger appears is one of the poorest countries in the world. The main agricultural products of the country are cotton, rice, millet, and potatoes. 85 percent of the population live with agriculture and animal husbandry. Petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad) are the main natural resources. Cotton, textile products and cattle are the main export products of the country. The main export partner is the USA with 78 percent.

Population: 15,642,001

Population Density: 13 per Km2

Land Area: 1,259,200 Km2