Kazakhstan, one of Central Asia's independent Turkish states, is the ninth largest country in the world. Kazakhstan, whose capital is Astana, is divided into 5 provinces and 14 provinces. These regions are Central Kazakhstan, North Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan, East Kazakhstan, and Western Kazakhstan.
Russia is located in the north of Kazakhstan, which extends from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan are in the south, and the People's Republic of China is located in the east. The country has a coast to the Aral and the Caspian Lakes.
One-fifth of the country's territory is covered with mountains. The other part consists of hilly plains and plateaus. There are thousands of small streams in Kazakhstan. The large part of these streams is poured into the Caspian Sea, Aral, Balkaş and Tengiz lakes. The rivers passing through the territory of Kazakhstan and pouring into the Northern Ice Sea are Irtiş, Isim, and Tobul. Most of the streams dry in summer. The main rivers are Ural and Seyhun. Many dams are located on the Seyhun River to prevent floods and irrigation.
There are fifty thousand lakes within the borders of the country, whose water level is generally variable and some of them dry in certain months. The 2320 km coast of the Caspian Sea is within the borders of Kazakhstan. Other important lakes are Aral, Balkaş, Zaysan, Alakol, Tengiz, and Seletitengiz.
Kazakhstan declared its independence on 16 December 1991. The Constitution was adopted on 28 January 1993. In the constitution, the country is defined as a unitary, secular, democratic and social state governed by a presidential system.
The President is the head of the executive. The term of office of the President was reduced to 5 years with the constitutional amendment of May 2007, when it was 7 years. The President may be elected for a maximum of 2 terms. However, with the amendment made in the Constitution, only President Nazarbayev has the right to be elected for life.
Kazakhstan has a continental climate due to its non-coastal and continental position. Summers are hot and dry, winters are cold and snowy. In January, temperatures range from -19 to -4 degrees. It varies between 19 and 26 degrees in July.
Muslims account for 70 percent of the Kazakh population. In the country where there is no official definition of religion, 26 percent of Christians live. The rest of the population is Buddhist, Jewish and non-religious.
Industry and Tourism
Kazakhstan is rich in oil, uranium, iron and gold reserves. 26 percent of the world's chromium, 20 percent of gold and 17 percent of uranium is located in Kazakhstan reserves. The country's main source of income is based on the export of underground resources. The gross domestic product of the country, which is very rich in terms of both underground resources and agricultural areas, is at the level of $ 7,000. Total underground riches account for more than $ 2 trillion.
Handicrafts are very well developed in Kazakhstan. Felt, wood, leather, silver and gold handicraft products come in the country's touristic places. The most popular of these are the toy camels made of felt, and the traditional tents called yurta. The models of the local musical instrument called Dombra, and the sweater dolls dressed in traditional costumes are among the finest examples of this enormous craftsmanship.
The equestrian sport competitions in Kazakhstan are traditional horsemen games that come to mind first. For centuries, among the Central Asian nomads, and of course the races and games that are widely held among the Kazakhs can be seen as root, bayge, girl kuvuv and avdarspak.
Population Density: 7 per Km2
Land Area: 2,699,700 Km ²