Russia is the largest country in the world with an area of 17 million square kilometers. It covers one in eight of the world and is spread across Asia and Europe. Russia, a multi-national country, is a Russian ethnic country with 80% of the population of 143 million. But it has more than 150 ethnic groups.
The official language of the country is Russian. Commonly spoken foreign languages are English, German, French, Spanish and Italian. The official currency of Russia is the Ruble. The largest city and capital is Moscow with a population of 11 million. There are more than 1000 cities in Russia. The biggest cities are Moscow, St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Krasnodar, Novosibirsk, Rostov, Astrakhan, Veliky Novgorod, and Saratovdur.
Russia, which ranks first among the world countries in terms of land, has different climate types such as humid continental climate, semi-arctic climate, and semi-arid climate. Air temperature reaches +5 degrees in Sochi city and reaches -61 degrees in Yakutsk city.
With 7 million 762 thousand 602 square kilometers of forest area, the country has the largest forest reserves of the world, after the Amazon forests in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide absorption. There are more than 40 national parks and more than 100 nature protection areas in the country. The Ural Mountains are among the oldest mountain ranges in the world, with their not-so-high, small-scale peaks of glacial hills. The highest point of Russia is Mount Elbrus (El-Bruz), which is the highest in Europe with an altitude of 5642 meters.
Baikal, the largest freshwater lake in Russia with many lakes, is known as the deepest lake in the world at a depth of 1642 meters. Russia's Volga River has the longest riverbed of Europe with a length of 3690 kilometers. Vasyuganskoye Swamp is the biggest bog in the world. The country with the largest natural gas and oil reserves is among the most oil producing countries.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in August 1991, the country underwent a transition process to transform its administration into the Russian Federation. On December 12, 1993, the new constitution, which completely changed the former Soviet government system, was adopted today.
While the Russian Constitution explicitly defines the executive powers of the federal government, it at the same time leaves key regional issues to the joint responsibility of the federal government and the other elements of the federation. The distribution of power among the central government, regional and local governments is still an evolving process.
The Russian Federation operates with the principle of separation of powers: executive, legislative and judicial.
In Central Russia, the central continental climate is dominant. There are 4 seasons; summer, winter, spring, and autumn. Each season lasts an average of 3 months. In Russia the average temperature in summer is +25 degrees, in the fall +10, +15 degrees; in winter temperatures can fall to -15.
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism are traditional religions of Russia, all of which are part of the historical heritage of Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church is the state religion of Russia before the revolution and it is the biggest religious institution of the country.
Industry and Tourism
Russia has a market economy with tremendous natural resources, especially oil and natural gas. Russia is the 9th country in terms of GDP (nominal) and the 6th largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. Since the beginning of the 21st century, high domestic consumption and greater political stability have supported economic growth in Russia. As of 2010, approximately 12.7% of the people in Russia live below the national poverty line. Unemployment in Russia, which was 12.4% in 1999, fell to 6% in 2007. The middle class, which was only 8 million in 2000, rose to 108 million in 2013.
More than 80% of Russia's exports are oil, natural gas, metals, and timber. Since 2003, the economic significance of exporting natural resources has been diminishing significantly by strengthening the domestic market.
Early Russian painting was represented by Byzantine icons and live frescoes. As Moscow rose in power, Feofan Grek, Dionysius and Andrey Rublev became important figures of Russian art of the period.
During the Soviet times during and after the Great Patriotic War, very patriotic and anti-fascist works of art were made. Important sculptor artists such as Vera Muhina, Yevgeni Vučetic, and Ernst Neizvestni have used socialist realism and innovation together.
Russia is a country that has been successful in many kinds of sports. In terms of the total number of medals of the Soviet Union and Russia, it is ranked second among all countries according to the number of gold medals in both Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics. The 1980 Summer Olympics were held in Moscow, while the 2014 Winter Olympics were held in Sochi.
Soviet gymnasts, track and field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, throwers, ski runners, biathlonists, speed skaters and figure skaters are among the best in the world. Soccer, basketball, and volleyball are the most popular sports branches of Russia. At the same time, Russia will host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. In the ice hockey, the Soviet Union and Russia managed to win gold medals in almost all Olympics and world championships.
From the last days of the Soviet, the popularity of tennis has increased and a number of famous tennis players such as Mariya Sharapova, the most winning female tennis player in the world, have emerged in Russia.
Population Density: 9 per Km2
Land Area: 16,376,870 Km ²