What is the Capital of China? Beijing is the capital of People’s Republic of China. It is the most crowded city after Shanghai and the third most crowded city at the same time.
Beijing, the political capital of the country, is also the capital of culture, education, and tourism. 91 universities in the city contributed to the increase of education level of Beijing. Some of these universities are among the best universities in China and the world.
When did Beijing Become the Capital?
Beginning in 1272, when Mongol Emperor and Kublai Khan, the founder of China’s Yuan Dynasty, were brought to the political center, it was the continual capital of China outside of short intervals. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), it became the official capital in 1420, when it took its present name, which means “The Northern Capital”. As one of the oldest capitals in the world, Beijing holds a decisive place in the history of China for eight centuries and contains many works of rich Chinese history.
The Mongols of Genghis Khan were taken to the city in 1215 and destroyed. In 1260 Kublai Khan settled in the area and set up a new city in the north-east of the city. This city, the center of China, is the city that Marco Polo has seen with a large han and named Cambaluc in his memory. A canal linking Beijing to the big canal made it possible for the chief to bring rice through Yangzi. First Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, who made Nancing the capital, gave Beijing the name Beiping. The third Ming Emperor Yongli (1403-1424) settled in this city and turned his name to Beijing.
Features of Beijing
The city has a population of 21.71 million according to 2017 data. It has an area of 16,801,25 square kilometers. The city is geographically very flat and has an arid structure. There are not many hills in the city and the climate is affected by many climates. In addition, due to over-industrialization, the air of the city has been polluted over the years. Air quality is well below world standards. It is also an economically developed city, but it is behind the cities of Shanghai and Hong Kong. It also has a high standard of living, despite being a crowded city. In parallel, intra-city transportation has also developed. Especially, thanks to the large metro network, many points can be easily reached.
Located at the crossing point of the major mountain passages in the south, it is a natural gateway to the Northern China Plain on the transport link connecting the north to the mountain range, plains, and plateaus. Due to its strategic importance, it has been the starting point of caravan routes to the wider Central Asian hinterland for more than 700 years.
Beijing is one of the most developed cities in China with its high share of the gross domestic product of the service sector. Beijing, which hosts 41 companies in the Fortune Global 500 list, is second in the list behind Tokyo. In addition, more than 100 of the largest Chinese companies are in Beijing.
Important Places to See in Beijing
The city has the most beautiful part of the Great Wall of China, the only structure that can be seen from the distance, many places on the UNESCO World Heritage List, and numerous historical temples and art galleries. It also has natural areas such as parks, botanical gardens, and zoological gardens. The city enriches the modern and the traditional structure in terms of city culture.
At the beginning of places to see are Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven and Summer Palace.